[141] In comparison, much of lowland Scotland receives less than 800 mm (31 in) annually. More than 2000 Years of Football", "Scotland: Anna Signeul urges players to fight for Euro 2017 places", The Open Championship – More Scottish than British, "Dario Franchitti seals his place as the greatest Indy car driver of the modern era", "The future of energy in Scotland: Scottish energy strategy", "Disaggregating Network Rail's expenditure and revenue allowance and future price control framework: a consultation (June 2005)", "Scottish Transport Statistics No 38: 2019 Edition Chapter 7: Rail Services", "Regional Rail Usage 2018–19 Statistical Release", British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference, Policy and Resources Committee of Guernsey, Indigenous, minority and lesser-used languages, President of the Policy and Resources Committee, List of countries by English-speaking population, List of countries where English is an official language, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Scotland&oldid=998008419, English-speaking countries and territories, NUTS 1 statistical regions of the United Kingdom, Articles with dead external links from December 2016, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles containing Scottish Gaelic-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with disputed statements from April 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with failed verification from January 2019, Articles tagged with the inline citation overkill template from January 2019, Articles lacking reliable references from January 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from December 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from January 2019, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 January 2021, at 09:16. The highest temperature recorded was 32.9 °C (91.2 °F) at Greycrook, Scottish Borders on 9 August 2003. Alternate titles: Rerum Scoticarum historia. Limited self-governing power, covering matters such as education, social services and roads and transportation, is devolved from the Scottish Government to each subdivision. [341][342][343] Highlanders can thank James Graham, 3rd Duke of Montrose, for the repeal in 1782 of the Act of 1747 prohibiting the wearing of tartans. Scottish referendum: Who is Lord Smith of Kelvin? The clàrsach (harp), fiddle and accordion are also traditional Scottish instruments, the latter two heavily featured in Scottish country dance bands. [288][289][290] Between 1960 and 1991, the Holy Loch was a base for the US fleet of Polaris ballistic missile submarines. The Scottish Lowlands host 80% of the total population, where the Central Belt accounts for 3.5 million people. [182], In August 2012, the Scottish population reached an all-time high of 5.25 million people. [340] Since 1606 the saltire has also formed part of the design of the Union Flag. [98] While their relative importance has somewhat declined due to changing recreational interests throughout the 20th century, deer stalking and grouse shooting remain of prime importance on many private estates in Scotland.[98][100]. [40] The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD, when Agricola invaded Scotland; he defeated a Caledonian army at the Battle of Mons Graupius in 83 AD. For other uses, see, Political divisions in early medieval Scotland, Norse kingdoms at the end of the eleventh century, The earliest known evidence is a flint arrowhead from. [citation needed], The Scottish Football Association (SFA), the second-oldest national football association in the world, is the main governing body for Scottish association football, and a founding member of the International Football Association Board (IFAB) which governs the Laws of the Game. Latin Masses in Scotland. The territorial extent of Scotland is generally that established by the 1237 Treaty of York between Scotland and the Kingdom of England[129] and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway. [172][173] The 2011 census indicated that 63% of the population had "no skills in Scots". Latin in Irish Catholic parish registers. How people reacted to John Logie Baird's creation 90 years ago", "Newspapers and National Identity in Scotland", "Great Scottish Movies – Scotland is Now", "Disney Pixar's Brave – Locations & Setting", "Scotland braces for 'Netflix effect' as TV film about Robert the Bruce is launched", "BBC Studios – Scripted – Continuing Drama – River City", "BBC – Two Doors Down comes calling again with series four – Media Centre", "Lesley Fitz-Simons: Scottish actress known for her role in Take the High Road", "The colourful history of a fascinating game. The first minister is also the political leader of Scotland. City status in the United Kingdom is conferred by letters patent. It initially had only a limited power to vary income tax,[198] but powers over taxation and social security were significantly expanded by the Scotland Acts of 2012 and 2016. In 2011, 43,700 people moved from Wales, Northern Ireland or England to live in Scotland.[183]. [109] Albert Speer later said Hitler described Hess's departure as one of the worst personal blows of his life, as he considered it a personal betrayal. In the 2019 general election, the SNP won 48 of the 59 seats. [37]:13–14[39]:38, The Antonine Wall was built from 142 at the order of Hadrian's successor Antoninus Pius (r. 138–161), defending the Roman part of Scotland from the unadministered part of the island, north of a line between the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth. Domestic rail services are operated by Abellio ScotRail. Following this, the newly developed football became the most popular sport in Scotland. English Subject terms: [75], Glasgow became one of the largest cities in the world and known as "the Second City of the Empire" after London. Petroleum related industries associated with the extraction of North Sea oil have also been important employers from the 1970s, especially in the north-east of Scotland. [82] In the late 19th century, a number of Scottish-born authors achieved international reputations, such as Robert Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, J. M. Barrie and George MacDonald. They are East Kilbride, Glenrothes, Cumbernauld, Livingston, and Irvine. These are being phased out and replaced by the National Qualifications of the Curriculum for Excellence. R. D. S. Jack, "Poetry under King James VI", in C. Cairns, ed., Dickinson, Donaldson, Milne (eds. [43][44] The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, and they introduced Christianity to Scotland. The majority of births are to unmarried women (51.3% of births were outside of marriage in 2012[185]). [55] The first Union Jack was designed at James's behest, to be flown in addition to the St Andrew's Cross on Scots vessels at sea. Email the Chairman- chairman@unavocescotland.org. [76] After 1860 the Clydeside shipyards specialised in steamships made of iron (after 1870, made of steel), which rapidly replaced the wooden sailing vessels of both the merchant fleets and the battle fleets of the world. [368] The Scotland women's team have achieved more recent success, qualifying for both Euro 2017[369] and the 2019 World Cup. A famous traditional Scottish instrument is the Great Highland bagpipe, a wind instrument consisting of three drones and a melody pipe (called the chanter), which are fed continuously by a reservoir of air in a bag. [40] The name Caledonia is echoed in the place names of Dunkeld, Rohallion, and Schiehallion. The Scottish Government also comprises the deputy first minister, currently John Swinney MSP, who deputises for the first minister during a period of absence of overseas visits. The name Edinburgh is used in both English and Scots for the capital of Scotland; in Scottish Gaelic, the city is known as Dùn Èideann. 2008, James Kelman, Kieron Smith, Boy, Penguin 2009, page 55: Oh where is yer da son? From 1830 the state began to fund buildings with grants; then from 1846 it was funding schools by direct sponsorship; and in 1872 Scotland moved to a system like that in England of state-sponsored largely free schools, run by local school boards. [209] The next general election is scheduled for 2 May 2024. Opposition from all other major parties led to an expected defeat. [174] Others speak Highland English. From 1892 Scottish universities could admit and graduate women and the numbers of women at Scottish universities steadily increased until the early 20th century. BBC Alba is the national Gaelic-language channel. Tuition is handled by the Student Awards Agency Scotland (SAAS), which does not charge fees to what it defines as "Young Students". [314] Later medieval literature included works in Latin,[315] Gaelic,[316] Old English[317] and French. [306][307] Scotland's University Courts are the only bodies in Scotland authorised to award degrees. [278], Whisky is one of Scotland's more known goods of economic activity. [300] All 3- and 4-year-old children in Scotland are entitled to a free nursery place. A previous Labour leader, John Smith, described the revival of a Scottish parliament as the "settled will of the Scottish people". Scotland hosts several music festivals including Celtic Connections (Glasgow), and the Hebridean Celtic Festival (Stornoway). ", "General election 2019: Sturgeon says legal indyref2 is a 'hard truth, "Local Government etc. John Wiley & Sons, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, referendum on devolution proposals in 1997, September 2014 referendum on Scottish independence, Cabinet Secretary for Education and Skills, Cabinet Secretary for Culture, Tourism and External Affairs, Minister for International Development and Europe, 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, National Health Service (Scotland) Act 1947, Strategic Defence and Security Review 2010, St Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007, Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors, "Analysis of Religion in the 2001 Census - gov.scot", "Scotland's Census 2011 – National Records of Scotland", Region and Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, "Population estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland", "Population estimates by sex, age and administrative area, Scotland, 2011 and 2012", "Regional gross value added (income approach), UK: 1997 to 2017, December 2015", "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab", "European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages", "Scotland becomes first part of UK to recognise signing for deaf as official language", "ISO 3166-2 Newsletter Date: 28 November 2007 No I-9. The fact that it is ancient, “dead” or “classical” does not prevent us from using it as a living language, or even internalizing it to a level of fluency much like we might aspire to with any other foreign language. [84], This period saw a process of rehabilitation for Highland culture. In the 1820s, as part of the Romantic revival, tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland, but across Europe,[85][86] prompted by the popularity of Macpherson's Ossian cycle[87][88] and then Walter Scott's Waverley novels. [135], The climate of most of Scotland is temperate and oceanic, and tends to be very changeable., As it is warmed by the Gulf Stream from the Atlantic, it has much milder winters (but cooler, wetter summers) than areas on similar latitudes, such as Labrador, southern Scandinavia, the Moscow region in Russia, and the Kamchatka Peninsula on the opposite side of Eurasia. [130] Rising to 1,344 metres (4,409 ft) above sea level, Scotland's highest point is the summit of Ben Nevis, in Lochaber, while Scotland's longest river, the River Tay, flows for a distance of 190 kilometres (118 mi).[131][132]. [199] The 2016 Act gave the Scottish Government powers to manage the affairs of the Crown Estate in Scotland, leading to the creation of Crown Estate Scotland. The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. [113] Shetland's relative proximity to occupied Norway resulted in the Shetland bus by which fishing boats helped Norwegians flee the Nazis, and expeditions across the North Sea to assist resistance.[114]. [281] It may contribute £400–682 million to Scotland, rather than several billion pounds, as more than 80% of whisky produced is owned by non-Scottish companies. Scotland's natural larder of game, dairy products, fish, fruit, and vegetables is the chief factor in traditional Scots cooking, with a high reliance on simplicity and a lack of spices from abroad, as these were historically rare and expensive. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation. [206] The next Scottish Parliament election is due to be held on 6 May 2021. [148][149][150] Various animals have been re-introduced, including the white-tailed sea eagle in 1975, the red kite in the 1980s,[151][152] and there have been experimental projects involving the beaver and wild boar. Completed in 1890, this cantilever bridge has been described as "the one internationally recognised Scottish landmark". [122] The first to hold the office of first minister of Scotland was Donald Dewar, who served until his sudden death in 2000.[123]. [112] Agriculture prospered, as did all sectors except for coal mining, which was operating mines near exhaustion. [299], The Curriculum for Excellence, Scotland's national school curriculum, presently provides the curricular framework for children and young people from age 3 to 18. [citation needed]. [citation needed] In common with most other advanced industrialised economies, Scotland has seen a decline in the importance of both manufacturing industries and primary-based extractive industries. [197] The Scottish Parliament has legislative authority for all other areas relating to Scotland. As a result of the Cameron–Clegg coalition's Strategic Defence and Security Review 2010, the Scottish regiments of the line in the British Army infantry, having previously formed the Scottish Division, were reorganised into the Scottish, Welsh and Irish Division in 2017. ... Pope voices nuclear war concerns at outset of Latin America trip. [30], Scotland is divided into 32 administrative subdivisions or local authorities, known as council areas. [259] Prior to 1611, there were several regional law systems in Scotland, most notably Udal law in Orkney and Shetland, based on old Norse law. [256] There are seven cities in Scotland: Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Inverness, Stirling and Perth. DFDS Seaways operated a freight-only Rosyth – Zeebrugge ferry service, until a fire damaged the vessel DFDS were using. Paul L. Robertson, "The Development of an Urban University: Glasgow, 1860–1914". Irish was never used in the registers. The successful Roman invasion of Caledonia 208–210 was undertaken by emperors of the imperial Severan dynasty in response to the breaking of treaty by the Caledonians in 197,[40] but permanent conquest of the whole of Great Britain was forestalled by the death of the senior emperor Septimius Severus (r. 193–211) while on campaign at Eboracum (York), and the Caledonians were again in revolt in 210–211. Scotland is a country that occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain and forms part of the United Kingdom. The monarchy of the United Kingdom continues to use a variety of styles, titles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to pre-union Scotland, including: the Royal Standard of Scotland, the Royal coat of arms used in Scotland together with its associated Royal Standard, royal titles including that of Duke of Rothesay, certain Great Officers of State, the chivalric Order of the Thistle and, since 1999, reinstating a ceremonial role for the Crown of Scotland after a 292-year hiatus. The name of Scotland is derived from the Latin Scotia: the tribe name Scoti applied to all Gaels. There are fifteen Scottish universities, some of which are amongst the oldest in the world. However, large scale commercial tree planting and the management of upland moorland habitat for the grazing of sheep and field sport activities like deer stalking and driven grouse shooting impacts upon the distribution of indigenous plants and animals. The despair reflected what Finlay (1994) describes as a widespread sense of hopelessness that prepared local business and political leaders to accept a new orthodoxy of centralised government economic planning when it arrived during the Second World War. [105], During the Second World War, Scotland was targeted by Nazi Germany largely due to its factories, shipyards, and coal mines. [383], Scotland's primary sources for energy are provided though renewable energy (42%), nuclear (35%) and fossil fuel generation (22%). The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. In 1878, despite opposition, a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy was restored to the country, and Catholicism became a significant denomination within Scotland. [361], Wardpark Studios in Cumbernauld is one of Scotland's television and film production studios where the television programme Outlander is produced. Because of their topography and perceived remoteness, parts of Scotland have housed many sensitive defence establishments. Scottish entrants have won many awards since the festival began in 1980. Health care in Scotland is mainly provided by NHS Scotland, Scotland's public health care system. [98][99] The process was named after Balmoral estate, purchased by Queen Victoria in 1848, that fuelled the romanticisation of upland Scotland and initiated an influx of the newly wealthy acquiring similar estates in the following decades. Here's how you say it. [59] The Protectorate Parliament was the first Westminster parliament to include representatives nominally from Scotland. [22] Its membership is 398,389,[189] about 7.5% of the total population, though according to the 2014 Scottish Annual Household Survey, 27.8%, or 1.5 million adherents, identified the Church of Scotland as the church of their religion. Andrew Collier, "Scotland's Confident Catholics". [273], Edinburgh is the financial services centre of Scotland, with many large finance firms based there, including: Lloyds Banking Group (owners of HBOS); the Government-owned Royal Bank of Scotland and Standard Life. The Southern Uplands are a range of hills almost 200 kilometres (124 mi) long, interspersed with broad valleys. [365], The world's first official international association football match was held in 1872 and was the idea of C. W. Alcock of the Football Association which was seeking to promote Association Football in Scotland. [271] In 2014, Scotland's per capita GDP was one of the highest in the EU. Highlands and Islands Airports operates eleven airports across the Highlands, Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles, which are primarily used for short distance, public service operations, although Inverness Airport has a number of scheduled flights to destinations across the UK and mainland Europe. [282] A briefing published in 2002 by the Scottish Parliament Information Centre (SPICe) for the Scottish Parliament's Enterprise and Life Long Learning Committee stated that tourism accounted for up to 5% of GDP and 7.5% of employment. If a particular answer is generating a lot of interest on the site today, it may be highlighted in orange. In 2014, research reported by the Office for National Statistics found that Scotland was the most highly educated country in Europe and among the most well-educated in the world in terms of tertiary education attainment, with roughly 40% of people in Scotland aged 16–64 educated to NVQ level 4 and above. [231] The devolved Scottish Parliament was created after a referendum in 1997 found majority support for both creating the Parliament and granting it limited powers to vary income tax. Sorry, and we hope you continue to use The Crossword Solver. [59] The Battle of Altimarlach in 1680 was the last significant clan battle fought between highland clans. [31] Glasgow City is the largest council area in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. The Picts kept slaves (mostly captured in war) through the ninth century. [248][249][250] Because constitutional affairs are reserved matters under the Scotland Act, the Scottish Parliament would again have to be granted temporary additional powers under Section 30 in order to hold a legally binding vote. [49] Victory at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 proved the Scots had regained control of their kingdom. [34] By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to (Gaelic-speaking) Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, both derived from the Gaelic Alba. The East Coast and West Coast main railway lines connect the major cities and towns of Scotland with each other and with the rail network in England. [202] The Parliament nominates one of its Members, who is then appointed by the monarch to serve as first minister. Scotland voted to remain part of the United Kingdom in 2014. Queen's Park F.C., in Glasgow, is probably the oldest association football club in the world outside England. Scotland is a country which, today, comprises the northern part of Great Britain and includes the islands known as the Hebrides and the Orkneys. Scotland also has some programming in the Gaelic language. [6] Since the enlargement of the European Union more people from Central and Eastern Europe have moved to Scotland, and the 2011 census indicated that 61,000 Poles live there. The use of Latin has declined greatly in recent years. A majority in the United Kingdom voted to withdraw from the EU, whilst a majority within Scotland voted to remain a member. ), The large number of military bases in Scotland led some to use the euphemism "Fortress Scotland". [175] The number of Gaelic speakers in Scotland dropped from 250,000 in 1881 to 60,000 in 2008. [90] The population of Scotland grew steadily in the 19th century, from 1,608,000 in the census of 1801 to 2,889,000 in 1851 and 4,472,000 in 1901. The Late Latin word Scotia ("land of the Gaels") was initially used to refer to Ireland, and likewise in early Old English Scotland was used for Ireland. Scotland and France sealed a treaty on 23 October 1295, known as the Auld Alliance. There are numerous bodies of freshwater including Loch Lomond and Loch Ness. In the 2000 Census, 9.2 million Americans self-reported some degree of Scottish descent. The school leaving age is 16, after which students may choose to remain at school and study for Access, Intermediate or Higher Grade and Advanced Higher qualifications. It especially provided manpower, ships, machinery, fish and money. Young Students are defined as those under 25, without children, marriage, civil partnership or cohabiting partner, who have not been outside of full-time education for more than three years. Their descendants as mormaers or earls of Ross are sometimes called Clan Anrias after one of … Nemo me impune lacessit was the Latin motto of the Royal Stuart dynasty of Scotland from at least the reign of James VI when it appeared on the reverse side of merk coins minted in 1578 and 1580. Scotland's third largest church is the Scottish Episcopal Church. Nova Scotia is Latin. His first prose work, Waverley in 1814, is often called the first historical novel. [72] Towards the end of the century Prime Ministers of Scottish descent included William Gladstone,[73] and the Earl of Rosebery. [59] English proposals along the same lines were abandoned in 1674 and in 1685. [292] As the Cold War intensified in 1961, the United States deployed Polaris ballistic missiles, and submarines, in the Firth of Clyde's Holy Loch. The current Cabinet Secretary for Health and Sport is Jeane Freeman[267] and the Director-General (DG) Health and chief executive, NHS Scotland is Paul Gray. We use cookies on The Crossword Solver to help our site work, to understand how it is used and to tailor the advertisements shown on our site. [139] Winter maxima average 6 °C (43 °F) in the Lowlands, with summer maxima averaging 18 °C (64 °F). The following year, twin Acts of Union were passed by both parliaments to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain with effect from 1 May 1707[23] with popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere. By the end of the tenth century, the Pictish language went extinct as its speakers shifted to Gaelic. "Changes in the list of subdivision names and code elements" (Page 11)", International Organization for Standardization, "Ancient Roman 'hand of god' discovered near Hadrian's Wall sheds light on biggest combat operation ever in UK", "The Emergence of a Nation-State, 1100–1300", "Survival and Revival: Late Medieval Scotland", "Renaissance and Reformation: The Sixteenth Century", "Religion, Marriage and Power in Scotland, 1503–1603", "On this Day: 21 November 1606: The proposed union between England and Scotland | History of Parliament Online", "Confidence and Perplexity: The Seventeenth Century", "BBC – History – British History in depth: Acts of Union: The creation of the United Kingdom", "Why did the Scottish parliament accept the Treaty of Union? [194], The head of state of the United Kingdom is the monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II (since 1952). 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